Al Shepard Alan Shepard blog Freedom 7 John Glenn Mercury Program Project Mercury Redstone Soviet Union Space U.S.S. Lake Champlain United States Yuri Gagarin

Remembering America’s First Man in Space, OTD in 1961 « AmericaSpace

Within the half-hour between 9:30 and 10 a.m. EDT on today in 1961, america came literally to a standstill. A Philadelphia appeals courtroom decide interrupted all proceedings to make an announcement; free champagne flowed in taverns; visitors slowed on California freeways; and other people danced and sang in Occasions Sq.. Even the brand new president, John F. Kennedy—barely four months into his administration and just a few weeks away from making some of the pivotal speeches of the 20th century—might only watch dumbstruck from his workplace in the White Home, as he beheld the view on a tv display.

For on 5 Might 1961, America’s love story with the human exploration of area really began, when its first astronaut rode a transformed U.S. Military Redstone missile on a suborbital “hop” into historical past. And as JFK stood in his secretary’s workplace, having simply broken up a gathering of the Nationwide Safety Council, his arms have been shoved deep into his pockets as he witnessed the pioneering voyage of Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr.

Virtually six many years later, it’s straightforward to dismiss Shepard’s quarter-hour flight aboard the Freedom 7 capsule—which afforded him the merest glimpse of Earth from area and just a few valuable minutes of weightlessness—in the context of John Glenn’s five-hour orbital mission in February 1962. It also paled in comparability to the Soviet Union’s success on 12 April 1961 in launching the primary man into area, on a totally orbital mission. Shepard’s Redstone lacked the impulse to realize orbit and he rose from Pad 5 at Cape Canaveral at 9:34 a.m. EDT, reached a peak altitude of 116 miles (186 km), then splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean at 9:49 a.m., some 99 miles (160 km) north of the Bahamas.

But for a relieved America, still smarting from an embarrassing failure to topple Fidel Castro’s regime in Cuba and an equally embarrassing failure to beat the Soviets in placing the primary man into area, Shepard’s flight was a timely triumph. For the man inside the cramped Freedom 7 capsule, his world was the spacecraft. At 9:34 a.m., he heard the firing command, but he would subsequently admit that pleasure shortly took over. When the countdown clock touched zero, Shepard’s gloved hand instinctively moved to start out the mission timer. “The liftoff was a whole lot smoother than I expected,” he later recalled. “I really expected to have to use full volume control to be able to receive, but all my transmissions over UHF were immediately acknowledged, without any repeats being requested.”

Fifteen minutes appears too brief a time for much of significant substance to be achieved. It was truly fairly the reverse. Earlier than launch, Shepard agreed with Walt Williams, the operations director for Venture Mercury, that he would speak as much as attainable, to keep everybody updated on probably the most arcane details. Because the Redstone rose larger, his calls crackled over the radio, giving gasoline readings, oxygen readings, G-meter readings, and techniques readings. The stresses of launch have been surprisingly low—a lot decrease than his training had prepared him for in the simulators and centrifuges—though it took a bumpier flip when the Redstone reached the transitional zone between the sting of the “sensible” environment and area. Eighty-eight seconds into the flight, Freedom 7 shuddered violently and, based on Shepard’s biographer, Neal Thompson, the astronaut’s head began “jackhammering so hard against the headrest that he could no longer see the dials and gauges clearly enough to read the data.” A number of moments later, the vibrations calmed.

A minute later, at 141.8 seconds after launch, the rocket’s engine finally fell silent and the escape tower was jettisoned. (The latter should have been automated, but it will appear that Shepard pulled the guide “JETT TOWER” override.) Small explosive expenses separated Freedom 7 from the rocket, and thrusters pushed the pair gently apart. Now flying freely, Shepard’s mission was to show that, in contrast to Yuri Gagarin, he might actively management his spacecraft. He switched from automated to guide control about three minutes after launch and, utilizing his control stick, tilted the capsule via pitch, yaw and roll maneuvers, all while touring at a suborbital velocity of more than 5,000 mph (8,000 km/h); 3 times quicker than any American in historical past. The craft responded crisply, though the spurt of its hydrogen peroxide thrusters was typically drowned out by the crackle of the radio.

“Weightlessness” got here as a peculiar surprise, as Shepard’s body gently floated from his couch and towards his shoulder harnesses. Flecks of dust drifted past his face, along with a metal washer, which shortly vanished from view. Nearing the apex of his upward arc from Earth, he glanced via Freedom 7’s periscope to behold the splendor of Earth, unfold out, map-like, beneath him. Sadly, through the morning’s prolonged delays, to stop sunlight from blinding him he had flipped a change to cowl the lens with a grey filter and had forgotten to remove it. Now he might only see a grey-colored blob on the display. He tried to succeed in across the cabin to flick off the filter, but his wrist inadvertently touched the abort deal with and he thought it greatest to go away it nicely alone.

His words—“What a beautiful view!”—have been probably honest, but definitely weren’t accompanied by full colour. Nonetheless, he was capable of see fairly “remarkable” things, together with Lake Okeechobee, on the northern edge of the Everglades, as well as Andros Island, shoals off Bimini and cloud cowl over the Bahamas. Later, he would inform a journalist for Life journal that he noticed “brilliantly clear” colours, but admitted privately that the grey filter obliterated a lot of the colour.

Back on Earth, a terrestrial audience was watching and listening and praying intently. On the prime of his long arc over the Atlantic Ocean—reaching 116 miles (186 km) at his highest level—the periscope mechanically retracted and Shepard strained to search for stars by way of Freedom 7’s awkwardly positioned port holes. Disappointingly, he noticed nothing. There was little time to ponder about it. Solely a 3rd of his 15-minute area voyage can be spent “in space”, and of these valuable minutes nearly all have been devoted to scientific and technical tasks, lasting a minute right here and two minutes there. At length, the capsule’s retrorockets fired and at 9:40 a.m., Shepard started his descent to the ocean.

The return to Earth, whose gravitational stresses peaked at 11 G, was bodily demanding and “not one most people would want to try at an amusement park”. Inside 30 seconds, Freedom 7 slowed from 5,000 mph (eight,000 km/h) to less than 500 mph (800 km/h). So high have been the G forces that Shepard might barely handle various guttural grunts to fellow astronaut Deke Slayton in the control middle. Contained in the capsule, temperatures remained secure at 28 degrees Celsius—“like being in a closed van on a warm summer day,” he later noted—because the blistering extremes of re-entry, outdoors, reached 1,200 levels Celsius. It was 9:43 a.m., a mere nine minutes since launch.

Four miles (6.4 km) above the Atlantic, the drogue parachute popped out of Freedom 7’s nose, followed by the jettisoning of the antenna capsule and deployment of the 63-foot (19-meter) orange and white most important cover. With “a reassuring kick in the butt”, the latter served to arrest the capsule’s descent and a snorkel valve equalized strain with the surface air. Shifting extra slowly now via the clouds, the capsule descended in a stately method, at not more than 19 mph (30 km/h), and splashed down superbly. Shepard had landed 300 miles (480 km) east of Cape Canaveral and within reach of the recovery vessel, U.S.S. Lake Champlain. It was 9:49 a.m.

Fifteen minutes and 28 seconds had elapsed since launch. America had just accomplished its first manned mission into area.

After splashdown, Freedom 7 listed over to its right aspect, however shortly returned to a traditional, heatshield-down orientation. The parachutes forged unfastened to stop dragging the capsule and a large patch of inexperienced fluorescent marker dye shortly spread throughout the water. Within minutes, Wayne Koons, pilot of one of many five Marine Air Group 26 rescue helicopters from the Lake Champlain, was hovering overhead, and his co-pilot, George Cox, had snagged the capsule with a hook and line.

At length, Shepard popped open the hatch and grabbed the padded harness (nicknamed “the horse’s collar”) that Cox had lowered, looping it over his head and underneath his arm. As he did so, he could not assist however recall that Dying’s foul breath was still on his face. Solely hours earlier, he had learn a worrying report about fellow aviators Malcolm Ross and Victor Prather. On 4 Might, the pair had ascended 21 miles (34 km) above the Gulf of Mexico in a balloon gondola, as a part of the Navy’s Stratolab high-altitude research undertaking. During their nine-hour ascent, the 2 pressure-suited males endured temperatures as low as -70 degrees Celsius (-94 Fahrenheit) and descended completely to the waters of the Gulf, whereupon tragedy struck. Mistakenly believing himself to be out of hazard, Prather opened his helmet visor, but as he climbed a ladder to the rescue helicopter, he slipped, fell and drowned as his go well with quickly full of water. Shepard needed no reminder of the risks involved with what he was doing, however Prather’s demise offered one other sobering warning.

Lower than 24 hours after Prather’s demise, it was, for Shepard and for America, “a beautiful day”. Twelve hundred sailors crowded the deck of the Lake Champlain, cheering the nation’s newest hero. Freedom 7 can be exhibited at 1961’s Paris Air Show, and the astronaut himself set foot on the deck of the recovery ship because the clock struck 10. Across the nation, the euphoria was electrifying. Floridians cheered, John Glenn jokingly requested for an additional Redstone to be set up for him, New Hampshire’s governor visited Shepard’s hometown, faculties have been closed and army plane dropped confetti. The astronaut’s proud mother and father and sister rode in an open-topped convertible, his wife, Louise, chatted to journalists outdoors her Virginia Seashore residence and Navy jets spelled the letter “S” in the sky.

For the hero, the first hour again on Earth was spent reliving the 15 minutes in mind-numbing detail for the physicians, the psychologists, the engineers, and the scientists. No, he did not sleep. No, he did not defecate. Sure, there was a noticeable odor in the cabin (urine). The questions appeared endless. He was then flown to Grand Bahama Island for a number of days of checks.

The flight of Freedom 7 was an unlimited shot in the arm for america, at a time when the nation’s scientific and technological may was being held in examine by the Soviet Union. Though Shepard had not surpassed Yuri Gagarin’s achievement, the truth that his mission was performed out in the complete glare of world publicity underscored the truth that America desired to adopt a stance of openness and transparency in its human area endeavors. Three weeks later, on 25 Might 1961, the last word consequence of Shepard’s flight was enshrined in government policy by President Kennedy himself: by committing the nation to touchdown a person on the Moon and granting barely eight years in which to do it.

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