The 19th annual Superior Maui Optical and Area Surveillance Applied sciences Conference (AMOS), held on September 11-14, 2018 at the Wailea Seashore Resort-Marriott, was the most important in its history. Organized and introduced by Maui Economic Improvement Board (MEDB), AMOS brought together representatives from authorities, business, and academia to discuss the speedy modifications within the area of Area Situational Consciousness (SSA) and Area Visitors Management (STM).
Over 840 attendees representing 23 nations participated in the robust technical program. Keynote speakers, panel discussions, reveals and poster shows addressed the growing variety of area operators, the transfer to business actions, and the importance of balancing business innovation with nationwide safety and worldwide relations.
The continued progress in attendance and collaborating nations at AMOS reflects a rising interest in SSA as new actors—national governments, start-up corporations, universities, and non-governmental organizations—turn out to be more concerned in area actions. The primary theme of this yr’s SSA Policy Forum was the implications of STM and commercialization in area, together with national safety, policy challenges, and the regulatory rules needed to make sure protected access to area, protected operation in area, and protected return from area.
“The 2018 AMOS Conference helped to lead the space community towards a more inclusive world,” stated Leslie Wilkins, MEDB President and CEO. “The program successfully wove together strands of policy panels and technical presentations, fostering an understanding of the interconnection between the two perspectives.”
The conference attracted a document number of 219 paper submissions that have been reviewed and sorted into more than 60 oral shows and roughly 80 poster shows. The papers provided updates and assessments of current analysis and cutting-edge know-how within the fields of astrodynamics, orbital debris, adaptive optics and imaging, optical methods and instrumentation, and non-resolved object characterization.
AMOS had 39 company and organizational sponsors and 28 exhibitors. Numerica Corporation, having participated as a presenter and attendee at AMOS for the past decade, was a sponsor and exhibitor for the primary time at this yr’s conference, introducing their business SSA capabilities to the area group.
Dr. Jeff Aristoff, Numerica Program Director, stated, “Numerica has enjoyed much support from numerous world-class researchers over the years. The company is committed to ‘pay it forward’ to the research community by providing no-cost access to a stream of precision SSA data on a subset of the objects that Numerica is tracking.”
Aristoff added, “Even in the fast-paced market of commercial SSA, Numerica is moving rapidly to deploy a number of key technologies that will further enhance our customers’ SSA and space control activities.”
Michael Czajkowski, Lead Member, Engineering Employees, Lockheed Martin Advanced Know-how Laboratories and AMOS attendee, stated, “Attending AMOS showed me the importance of all the different tradecraft needed to go into remotely sensed data. Therefore, I see an opportunity here to build cross-functional teams with expertise in astrophysics, data science, and software engineering to develop mathematical models, analyze complex data sets, and deploy advanced systems that detect and classify anomalies at machine speed.”
Czajkowski concluded, “The conference keynote speakers, panel discussions, poster and exhibiters, as well as the short courses, showed new ways we capture data from sensors as they become prolific through commercialization. These modalities could help us to look beyond kinematics to understand behaviors of resident space objects by examining patterns and helping determine what is normal and what isn’t.”
New to the Conference
New to the conference this yr, the Journal of the Astronautical Sciences, an archival publication devoted to the know-how of area flight, will publish vital technical papers introduced at AMOS. Additionally, this yr the American Astronautical Society Area Surveillance Technical Committee introduced awards for Greatest Paper and Greatest Scholar Paper.
Laura Pirovano, a PhD scholar at the University of Surrey in Guildford, United Kingdom, was the recipient of the 2018 AMOS Greatest Scholar Paper award. Pirovano’s paper deals with “Probabilistic Data Association Based on Intersection of Orbit Sets”. Her profitable paper included differential algebra to perform preliminary orbit willpower issues without using physical constraints, a highly revolutionary and environment friendly strategy to this very complicated drawback. In a shock move, the Committee also awarded Greatest Paper to Pirovano, another indication of the outstanding high quality of her work.
SSA POLICY FORUM
The SSA Policy Discussion board explored worldwide points related to SSA, in panel format. Held every morning through the convention, every coverage session was introduced by a relevant keynote speech by an invited SSA thought-leader. Bringing together the builders and implementers of SSA capabilities with the architects of SSA policy, offered a discussion board to work together at a time when the economic and operational environments are rapidly changing.
Day 1: SSA and Enhancing Safety and Deterrence
Many nations, together with the U.S., have rising considerations concerning the proliferation of counter-space capabilities and the potential for future conflicts on Earth extending into area. This panel discussed the position SSA performs in enhancing national and international area safety and deterrence, and steps that can be taken to strengthen the power to discourage aggressive action towards satellites and ensure a secure, predictable area domain.
The keynote was delivered by Main Common Stephen Whiting, Commander, 14th Air Drive, Air Drive Area Command, and Deputy Joint Drive Area Element Commander, U.S. Strategic Command, Vandenberg Air Drive Base, California.
“Superiority over any domain is not a birthright,” stated Whiting. “Every country must earn it and constantly evolve to maintain it. SSA supports our ability to rapidly warn and defend our vital space systems. We work with our allies and stand with our partners, with the goal of integrating their capabilities with ours for global safety.”
Whiting went on to applaud the specialists at the AMOS Conference for his or her expertise within the area of SSA and the importance of their contributions. “Industry can innovate without permission,” he stated. “Turn your sensors to the sky and discover new problems. Isolate them and solve them individually and use what you learn to help us preserve peace in the space domain.”
Day 1 Panel Moderator: Doug Loverro, Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Protection for Area Coverage, U.S. Department of Defense.
Panel Members: Regina Peldszus, Aerospace Middle; Jana Robinson, Prague Safety Studies Institute; Scotty Van Sant, U.S. Strategic Command.
“There needs to be a lot of work done in how we handle data.” stated Loverro. “I’m excited for the opportunity for a consortium to work together as partners to shape standards for SSA, which can help with deference. As General Whiting elaborated, ‘We need to de-centralize thinking about space the same way we have de-centralized thinking about land and sea’. The reality is that the DoD needs to interface with industry and academia to unite responsible actors and attract business while keeping the U. S. safe. Space has become a potential market for commercial opportunities, a driven innovation worldwide. However, it’s also raised questions about national security and policy.”
Peldszus stated, “The transfer of good practice in space is key, how to share technical data and its impact on capabilities. Issues of high-reliability and safety-critical domains must be fostered through policy, and governance of complex large-scale socio-technical systems including multilateral infrastructure, resilience and operational practice in critical and routine scenarios. We are currently debating how serious Europe is about global sharing of SSA.”
Robinson’s work in “Space Security in Bilateral International Relations” introduces how the changing area setting influences international space-related cooperation. She stated, “It is important to review the role of China’s and Russia’s initiatives in international organizations relevant to space. It is also important to present the main elements of the EU’s international engagement with respect to space security issues.”
Van Sant added, “We must have an open exchange of data to detect objects in space for long-term safety in the space environment and for international confidence in the domain. An SSA sharing program is a stepping stone to building partnerships. We must explore mutual opportunities, growing liaisons with other nations to integrate into CSpOC (Combined Space Operations Center). Governance is important. Yet, how do we define space stability and what bad behavior looks like? The U.S. is committed to stability with allies to deter threats and conflicts extending into space.”
Day 2: STM and Modernizing Oversight of Business Area Activities
Because the quantity and complexity of human area actions grows throughout business, civil, and national safety sectors, area visitors management (STM) consists of civil features of area situational consciousness, government oversight of private sector actions, and managing the area surroundings. The USA lately issued a new presidential policy directive establishing a national area policy and an administrative framework for implementation. Different nations are also reconsidering their very own national insurance policies and capabilities. The Day2 panel discussed the evolution of STM, the potential roles of presidency and the personal sector in its implementation, and worldwide cooperation.
The keynote speaker was Kevin O’Connell, Director of the Office of Area Commerce, U.S. Division of Commerce.
“My office is a ‘one-stop shop’ for policy and regulatory matters, plus we advocate for commercial industry, “said O’Connell. “Beyond the re-establishment of the National Space Council, and its early Space Policy Directives, this is another reflection of the Trump Administration’s emphasis on space, and specifically U.S. commercial space as an important source of innovation and economic benefit to the nation.”
O’Connell explained “U.S. commercial enterprises will play a key role in transforming our SSA and STM capabilities because of the confluence of national leadership, technology, and finance that is driving space innovation very quickly. Most importantly, the need to understand activity in space is growing every day, based on U.S. strategic and economic interests.”
“The high-speed growth of the global space economy will depend on the rapid modernization and improvement of the SSA and STM missions as they exist today,” O’Connell harassed to the viewers. “The key question is how quickly and efficiently we can involve industry in this transformation. We have brought together the many agencies of Commerce to address this.”
In closing, O’Connell stated, “I believe we are at the beginning of a new age in SSA and STM, one that will be absolutely essential to the space economy and for space exploration to the Moon and beyond. Those goals cannot be reached without the robust participation of all sectors in the space industry. The Department of Commerce and other U.S. government agencies are working intensely to find new pathways for that to happen.”
Day 2 Panel Moderator: Ralph Dinsley, Northern Area and Safety
Panel Members: Bhavya Lai, Science and Know-how Coverage Institute, Institute for Protection Analyses; Bryan Benedict, SES Government Options; Paul Graziani, Analytical Graphics Inc.; John Kay, Defence Know-how Agency, New Zealand Defence Drive; and Charity Weeden, U.S Managing Representative, Astroscale, Lquinox Consulting, LLC.
Dinsley stated, “With the defense industry becoming ever more data driven, ensuring that space systems can operate safely and efficiently is crucial for government and military agencies. We need to discuss approaches and strategies for how a holistic approach to SSA can be successfully implemented at a time when the domain is growing increasingly congested with active satellites as well as space debris.”
“In addition,” Dinsley continued, “with plans for satellite launches and Low Earth Orbit mega-constellations increasing at an alarming rate, the issue of space governance in this ill-defined domain requires immediate consideration to ensure that necessary safe and responsible space exploitation can continue for years to come.”
Lai stated, “We did a study on Global Trends in SSA and STM. Our case studies showed that increasingly there is an expectation on the part of operators, including foreign governments as well as private operators, that the SSA information they receive be more precise and transparent than it is today. However, given the growing importance of space in countries around the world, and the prospect of profiting from providing this information, there is growing global and private interest in both providing and using SSA information.”
“There is tremendous advancement happening with new systems,” added Graziani. “We need to work on the complex issue of how to share data for collision avoidance and safety of flight without disclosing sensitive information.”
Charity Weeden talked about the right way to mitigate debris from end-of-life satellites, how lively particles removing is vital, and the way worldwide collaboration is needed for the task. She stated, “We all need to share the responsibility for defunct satellites doing harm in the space neighborhood. Thousands of new satellites are predicted to be launched and we need a plan to de-orbit them. Our mission is to reduce the amount of space debris and keep Earth orbit sustainable and usable for generations to come by developing technology to remove broken satellites and large pieces of junk.”
Day three: SSA to Help Greatest Practices for Rendezvous and Proximity Operations (RPOs)
Two totally different keynote speakers addressed this session. Sei-Joong Kwon, Director Common for Climate Change, Power, Setting and Scientific Affairs, Ministry of Overseas Affairs, Republic of Korea, emphasised bilateral cooperation. He stated, “Our cooperation is strengthening between the U.S. and Republic of Korea. Our partnership is focused on national policies, regional issues, and areas of mutual cooperation.”
Kwon added, “As President Trump highlighted in his visit to the Republic of Korea in November 2017, the U.S. and Republic of Korea alliance remains a linchpin for security, stability, and prosperity in the Indo-Pacific. Today’s dialogue builds on that vision and the strong bilateral cooperation that serves as a foundation for our solid alliance.”
Richard H. Buenneke, Senior Advisor, Area Coverage, U.S. Division of State, emphasized the complexities and open issues associated to area operations. RPOs are a elementary element of many future area applied sciences, together with satellite tv for pc inspection and servicing, on-orbit assembly, and lively debris removing. Nevertheless, the unfold of RPO know-how and activities on orbit has additionally created elevated considerations concerning the means to hold out such activities in a protected and accountable manner and about nationwide security implications.
Buenneke stated, “Although a nation’s interest in protecting its commercial assets in space would seem obvious, the task of protecting commercial satellites is inherently complicated. As more countries start to branch out into space, controlling traffic and keeping an eye on satellites and debris is of growing interest to many governments. Protection requires coordination among multiple actors in the public and private sectors. Given the complexities of the process, it is not surprising that efforts to protect all stakeholders are slow in coming. At the same time, it is key to provide increased assurance of safety standards, thus benefiting the economic and national security interest of America, its allies and its commercial partners.”
Day 3 Panel Moderator: Victoria Samson, Safe World Basis.
Panel Members: Jim Armor, OrbitalATK; Lt. Col. Kevin Amsden, Air Pressure Area Command; Tom Kubancik, L3 Applied Protection Options; and Brian Weeden, Safe World Foundation.
This panel mentioned the position of SSA for serving to to watch RPO actions to extend security and reliability and scale back misperceptions.
“The question is how to develop norms and standards to enable cooperative RPOs and mitigate challenges,” stated Samson. “Norms and standards are essential to creating a vibrant commercial industry.”
Brian Weeden added, “On-orbit servicing and RPOs are key to enabling future of on-orbit activities. While they will greatly increase the viability of and benefits from space activities they also raise several diplomatic, legal, safety, operational, and policy challenges that need to be tackled.”
“We need to leverage best practices from government and industry to research, develop, and publish non-binding, voluntary consensus standards, both technical and operational, for cooperative RPOs,” Weeden concluded. “These standards would provide the foundation for a new commercial repertoire of robust space-based capabilities and a future in-space economy.”
The 2019 AMOS Conference, September 17-20, is predicted to be even greater as it celebrates it’s 20th Anniversary.