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Cannabis: A Lost History

Cannabis: A Lost History


Dr. Mercola, Visitor
Waking Occasions

Hashish, higher often known as marijuana, has been used for its medicinal properties for hundreds of years. It’s been heralded as a “cure-all,” revered for its therapeutic properties, notably for ache but in addition as a possible anticancer remedy. Marijuana was a well-liked botanical drugs within the 19th and 20th centuries, widespread in U.S. pharmacies of the time.

It wasn’t till 1970 that the herb was declared a Schedule 1 managed substance within the U.S., a classification reserved for medicine with “high potential for abuse” and “no accepted medical use.” Three years later the Drug Enforcement Company was shaped to implement the newly created drug schedules, and the battle towards marijuana use started. In mild of its historical past as a worldwide panacea for all types of ills, it’s classification as a managed substance is especially unjustified.

As famous within the documentary “Cannabis: A Lost History,” written, directed and narrated by Chris Rice, marijuana has been “an integral part of human civilization,” that includes in historic Japanese cave work, in addition to Chinese language and Siberian burial rites courting again to 3000 B.C. Based mostly on the proof — particularly the invention that the human physique is provided with a cannabinoid system — it seems our relationship with hashish goes again to the very daybreak of the human species.

Historic remnants from all around the globe additionally reveal the significance of hashish in drugs and spirituality. For instance, Taoist monks in historic China burned hashish as incense, and consumed it with ginseng — a mixture thought to open your psychic facilities, permitting you to see the longer term. Hashish was additionally revered as sacred in Hinduism, Zoroastrianism and Buddhism.

Cannabinoids and the Cannabinoid Receptor System

The marijuana plant accommodates greater than 60 totally different cannabinoids; chemical compounds the human physique is uniquely outfitted to answer. The 2 main ones are cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the latter of which is the psychoactive element. Cannabinoids work together together with your physique by means of naturally occurring cannabinoid receptors embedded in cell membranes all through your physique.

There are cannabinoid receptors in your mind, lungs, liver, kidneys, immune system and extra; the therapeutic (and psychoactive) properties of marijuana happen when a cannabinoid prompts a cannabinoid receptor. Your physique additionally has naturally occurring endocannabinoids just like THC that stimulate your cannabinoid receptors and produce quite a lot of necessary physiologic processes.

So, your physique is definitely hard-wired to answer cannabinoids by way of this distinctive cannabinoid receptor system. We nonetheless don’t know precisely how far its influence in your well being reaches, however so far it’s recognized that cannabinoid receptors play an essential position in lots of physique processes, together with metabolic regulation, ache, nervousness, bone progress and immune perform.1

The Earliest History of Hashish

In accordance with the featured video, the earliest written references to hashish are discovered within the Chinese language Materia Medica, stated to be written by Shen Nung round 2800 B.C. The oldest recognized copy of this guide dates again to 50 B.C. Nung is certainly one of three “celestial emperors” revered within the Chinese language tradition. “Half emperor, half deity, he is said to have ruled over China long before written history,” Rice says.

Nung is credited with inventing agriculture — together with the hoe, plow and irrigation — in addition to acupuncture and Conventional Chinese language Drugs (TCM). Typically depicted draped in leaves and chewing on numerous crops, Nung was the primary pharmacologist, experimenting with and recording the well being results of crops. Nung documented round 100 totally different circumstances that responded nicely to hashish, together with gout, rheumatism, malaria and absentmindedness.

Earlier than Nung declared its medicinal attributes, the hashish plant, referred to as “ma” in Chinese language, had been used for hundreds of years within the manufacturing of textiles, paper, rope and pottery. Round 200 A.D., a Chinese language doctor named Hua Tuo carried out the primary surgical procedure utilizing an anesthetic — a method referred to as Ma Fei San, which interprets to “cannabis boiling powder.”

For hundreds of years, hashish remained one of many 50 important crops utilized in TCM. It was solely faraway from widespread use in current occasions as a result of its controversial authorized standing. The movie additionally critiques the historical past of hashish in Indian tradition. Within the Vedas, the sacred textual content of India, hashish (bhang) is listed as considered one of 5 sacred crops, and the Hindu god Shiva is known as “Lord of the bhang,” which means the Lord of hashish.

Based on the Mahanirvana, “bhang is consumed in order to liberate oneself,” and liberation is the trail to immortality. The traditional Egyptians, Persians and Greeks additionally used hashish in quite a lot of methods, together with medicinally and for religious upliftment. References to hashish are even present in Islamic, Judaic and Christian texts, though an error in translation seems to have crept into the Bible alongside the best way. The unique Hebrew time period “kaneh bosm,” or hashish, is discovered a number of occasions within the Previous Testomony.

In Exodus, chapter 30, God instructs Moses on tips on how to make a holy anointing oil: “Take for yourself choice spices: 500 shekels of pure myrrh, half as much fragrant cinnamon, 250 shekels of kaneh bosm and 500 shekels of cassia and mix these with olive oil.” In additional trendy Bibles, kaneh bosm has been translated as candy calamus. The issue is that this plant doesn’t have the properties that the Bible ascribes to kaneh bosm.

Based on the movie, a 12th century portray present in a Sicilian basilica additionally “appears to show Jesus near a pot leaf.” The portray is titled “Jesus healing the blind.” Apparently sufficient, “modern scientific studies have since proven that cannabis delays retinal degeneration,” Rice says.

The American History of Hashish

Within the U.S., the prohibition of marijuana started to show in 1996 when California turned the primary state to legalize medical hashish. Since then, many others have adopted. In 2012, Colorado and Washington state turned the primary states to legalize its leisure use. As we speak, nearly all of People help hashish both as a drugs, for leisure use, or each. Surveys present a minimum of four in 10 People have tried marijuana, whereas almost 60 % help full legalization.

A 2013 survey discovered a majority of physicians — 76 % — additionally approve of using medical marijuana.2 CNN’s chief medical correspondent and neurosurgeon Sanjay Gupta additionally made a extremely publicized reversal on his marijuana stance after the manufacturing of his two-part collection “Weed,” which aired in 2014.three

The American historical past of hashish goes again to our Founding Fathers, who cultivated the plant for industrial functions. George Washington, for instance, is claimed to have grown greater than 100 hemp crops at his residence in Mount Vernon, Virginia.four Hashish known as hemp when getting used for its fibers, that are extracted from the stem and constructed into rope, clothes and paper.

Hemp crops are low in tetrahydrocannabinols (THC) ranges and subsequently don’t get you excessive. In the course of the 17th century, hemp was seen as an necessary money crop. It was used for rope by navies all over the world, and as a thick sturdy linen excellent for clothes and packaging heavy supplies. Hemp seed oil was utilized in soaps, paints and varnishes.

The battle that has raged over marijuana is an extended and arduous one. You possibly can learn a quick historical past of marijuana prohibition within the Huffington Submit.5 Nonetheless, actions to legalize marijuana have continued all through, beginning as early as 1973, when Oregon turned the primary state to decriminalize hashish. Probably the most profitable motion so far, and the one which produced the primary authorized marijuana market in many years, is the medical marijuana motion.

Medical hashish is now authorized in 30 U.S. states,6,7 nearly all of which permit restricted use of medical marijuana beneath sure medical circumstances, though some restrict medical hashish to oils or tablets solely. Eight states have legalized it for leisure use.

A variety of municipalities have additionally created their very own marijuana guidelines, both decriminalizing it, legalizing it, enacting guidelines that direct metropolis regulation enforcement to stop arresting people for marijuana possession, or making hashish offenses the bottom precedence for regulation enforcement.

What Can Hashish Deal with?

As talked about, your physique makes its personal cannabinoids, just like these present in marijuana, however in a lot smaller quantities. These endocannabinoids seem to carry out signaling operations just like your physique’s neurotransmitters, resembling dopamine and serotonin. Cannabinoid receptors may be discovered on cell membranes all through your physique. In reality, scientists now consider they could characterize probably the most widespread receptor system.eight

The truth that your physique is replete with cannabinoid receptors, key to so many organic features, is why there’s such monumental medical potential for hashish. Despite the fact that analysis has been restricted by its classification as a Schedule 1 managed substance, its record of medicinal advantages continues to be fairly lengthy. For instance, hashish has been discovered helpful within the remedy of:9,10,11,12,13

Psychological issues, together with post-traumatic stress dysfunction, temper issues and Tourette’s syndrome Seizure issues akin to epilepsy Ache (in a single research,14 three puffs of marijuana a day for 5 days decreased continual nerve ache) Rheumatoid arthritis Spasticity, dystonia and tremors Coronary heart illness A number of sclerosis and different autoimmune points Autism Parkinson’s illness Persistent fatigue syndrome Most cancers, together with melanoma, leukemia and cancers of the mind, breast, prostate, lung, head and neck,15thyroid, colon and pituitary Nausea, vomiting and lack of urge for food16 Insomnia Glaucoma HIV/AIDS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Crohn’s illness Anorexia Alzheimer’s illness (the U.S. authorities, by means of the Division of Well being and Human Providers, holds a patent on CBD as a neuroprotectant) Hepatitis-C Cachexia (losing syndrome) Bronchial asthma Drug dependency and withdrawal Hypertension

Among the many most enjoyable analysis is that on most cancers. Not solely does hashish assist with the disagreeable unwanted side effects of conventional chemotherapy (together with ache, nausea and insomnia), however the hashish itself seems to be a pure chemotherapy agent.17

Researchers have discovered hashish is pro-apoptotic, which means it triggers mobile suicide of most cancers cells whereas leaving wholesome cells untouched, and anti-angiogenic, which means it cuts off a tumor’s blood provide. Dozens of research level to marijuana’s effectiveness towards many several types of most cancers. For instance, Harvard researchers discovered THC cuts tumor progress in lung most cancers whereas considerably decreasing its means to unfold.18

Medicinal Marijuana Can Assist Stem Demise Toll From Narcotic Ache Killers

One other space the place hashish presents nice hope is within the remedy of ache. Overdoses from narcotic ache killers at the moment are the main explanation for demise amongst People underneath the age of 50, and prescription drugs basically have for many years been among the many main causes of dying within the U.S. Based on Dr. Margaret Gedde, proprietor and founding father of Gedde Entire Well being and the Clinicians’ Institute of Hashish Drugs, analysis clearly confirms that hashish is safer and fewer poisonous than many prescribed drugs.

This consists of liver and kidney toxicity, gastrointestinal injury, nerve injury and dying. Furthermore, cannabinoids typically work when pharmaceutical medicine fail, so not solely is hashish safer nevertheless it’s sometimes simpler. Apart from treating intractable seizures, one of many strongest areas of analysis relating to marijuana’s well being advantages is ache management.

In 2010, the Middle for Medical Hashish Analysis launched a report19 on 14 medical research about using marijuana for ache, most of which have been FDA-approved, double-blind and placebo-controlled. The report revealed that marijuana not solely controls ache however in lots of instances, it does so higher than pharmaceutical options.

Should you examine opioids to marijuana, marijuana is certainly safer. Opposite to opioids, a hashish overdose can’t kill you as a result of there are not any cannabinoid receptors in your mind stem, the area of your mind that controls your heartbeat and respiration.

What’s extra, marijuana has been proven to ease withdrawal signs in these making an attempt to wean off opioids, that are extraordinarily addictive. In states the place medical marijuana is authorized, overdose deaths from opioids decreased by a mean of 20 % after one yr, 25 % after two years and as much as 33 % by years 5 and 6.

Huge Pharma Takes Goal at CBD

Sadly, however not surprisingly, the drug business is now making an attempt to show CBD oil right into a drug, and therefore unlawful on the market as a complement.20 Displaying promise for a variety of illnesses, the drug business sees hashish as main competitors, and rightfully so. June 25, 2018, GW Prescription drugs turned the primary firm to realize FDA approval for a CBD-based drug.21,22

The drug in query, Epidiolex, was accredited for the remedy of intractable childhood epilepsy in youngsters aged 2 and older. One other product referred to as Sativex can also be awaiting FDA approval. Sativex has already been accepted in quite a few different nations for the remedy of spasticity in a number of sclerosis sufferers. In a June 25 assertion,23 FDA Commissioner Dr. Scott Gottlieb said:

“This product approval demonstrates that advancing sound scientific analysis to research components derived from marijuana can result in necessary therapies … This is a vital medical advance. However it’s additionally essential to notice that this isn’t an approval of marijuana or all of its elements. That is the approval of 1 particular CBD treatment for a selected use. And it was based mostly on well-controlled medical trials evaluating using this compound within the remedy of a selected situation.

Furthermore, this can be a purified type of CBD. It’s being delivered to sufferers in a dependable dosage type and thru a reproducible route of supply to make sure that sufferers derive the anticipated advantages. That is how sound medical science is superior. So in the present day, along with celebrating this scientific achievement and the medical advance that it represents … we also needs to mirror on the trail that made this potential.

It’s a path that’s obtainable to different product builders who need to convey forth marijuana-derived merchandise via applicable drug improvement packages. That pathway features a strong medical improvement program, together with cautious assessment by way of the FDA’s drug approval course of. That is probably the most applicable strategy to deliver these remedies to sufferers. This course of additionally features a assessment of the purity of a brand new drug and manufacturing controls.”

FDA Cracks Down on CBD Dietary supplements

As anticipated, with its approval of the primary CBD drug, the FDA has elevated its scrutiny of corporations making CBD extracts. In November 2017, 4 Colorado companies acquired FDA warning letters for making “illegally unsubstantiated health claims” on their CBD merchandise.24 In a November 1 press launch, the FDA stated:25

“[T]he company at present issued warning letters to 4 corporations illegally promoting merchandise on-line that declare to stop, diagnose, deal with or remedy most cancers with out proof to help these outcomes … The misleading advertising of unproven remedies might hold some sufferers from accessing applicable, acknowledged therapies to deal with critical and even deadly illnesses.

The FDA has grown more and more involved on the proliferation of merchandise claiming to deal with or remedy critical illnesses like most cancers. On this case, the illegally bought merchandise allegedly include cannabidiol (CBD), a element of the marijuana plant that isn’t FDA permitted in any drug product for any indication.”

The warning letters26 additionally rejected claims that CBD oil might be categorized as dietary dietary supplements since Investigational New Drug (IND) purposes have been submitted for the CBD-containing medicine Sativex and Epidiolex. This means the company isn’t just aiming to wash up the hashish business’s propensity to make unlawful claims; it additionally raises considerations that the legality of all CBD merchandise is in query now that no less than one CBD-containing drug has been authorised.

Many CBD Merchandise Are Mislabeled

The FDA scrutiny is just not solely unwarranted, nevertheless. A November 2017 research27 in JAMA discovered solely 30 % of CBD extracts bought on-line precisely listing the quantities of cannabinoids on the label. And, whereas CBD could be very protected, accuracy continues to be of utmost significance.

The FDA and DEA may also use info like this to push CBD into pharma-only territory. The JAMA research used triplicate checks to research the cannabinoid content material of 84 CBD merchandise bought on-line, together with a 10-point technique validation process. A 10 % plus or minus allowable variance was used, which is in step with natural product labeling generally within the U.S. Based on the authors:

“Noticed CBD focus ranged between zero.10 mg/mL and 655.27 mg/mL (median, 9.45 mg/mL). Median labeled focus was 15.00 mg/mL … With respect to CBD, 42.85 % of merchandise have been underlabeled, 26.19 % have been overlabeled, and 30.95 % have been precisely labeled.

Accuracy of labeling trusted product sort, with vaporization liquid most often mislabeled … and oil most ceaselessly labeled precisely … Focus of unlabeled cannabinoids was usually low; nevertheless, THC was detected (as much as 6.43 mg/mL) in 18 of the 84 samples examined … Of examined merchandise, 26 % contained much less CBD than labeled, which might negate any potential medical response.

The overlabeling of CBD merchandise on this research is analogous in magnitude to ranges that triggered warning letters to 14 companies in 2015-2016 from the U.S. Meals and Drug Administration (e.g., precise CBD content material was negligible or lower than 1 % of the labeled content material), suggesting that there’s a continued want for federal and state regulatory businesses to take steps to make sure label accuracy of those shopper merchandise.”

Educate Your self on the Scientific Proof Supporting Medical Marijuana

For those who’re nonetheless on the fence on the subject of giving individuals the fitting to make use of medical marijuana, probably the greatest methods to nonetheless your fears is to take a look at the analysis, and take a look at what docs are doing in medical follow. To start out, I like to recommend listening to my interviews with Geddeand Dr. Allan Frankel, during which they talk about most of the medical advantages of hashish. Different useful assets embrace:

The Worldwide Affiliation for Hashish web site, which maintains a Medical Research and Case Report web page.28 Most,29 the U.S. authorities’s most cancers web site, accommodates analysis referring to using hashish PubMed30 is a searchable public useful resource containing an enormous quantity of medical literature, together with research involving hashish The Journal of Ache31 is a publication by the American Ache Society with an extended listing of research on the pain-relieving results of hashish Nationwide Institute on Drug Abuse32 supplies details about preclinical and medical trials underway to check marijuana and numerous extracts for the remedy of quite a lot of illnesses, together with autoimmune illnesses similar to a number of sclerosis and Alzheimer’s illness, irritation, ache and psychological issues lists 60 peer-reviewed research on medical marijuana and hashish extracts revealed between 1990 and 2014, listed by the situation handled33

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Hashish: A Lost History was final modified: July 12th, 2018 by WakingTimes

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